На данный момент в поясе астероидов между Марсом и Юпитером насчитывается около 800 000 объектов, и раз в год в нем происходит редкое явление — разрушение одного из астероидов под воздействием солнечных лучей. Процесс начинается в ходе неравномерного нагревания его поверхности, вследствие чего объект начинает вращаться быстрее и центробежная сила превосходит силу тяжести. Именно это недавно случилось с астероидом Голт (6478 Gault) — телескоп «Хаббл», взаимодействуя с устройствами других стран, заснял два хвоста, состоящих из его обломков.

«Хаббл» заснял крайне редкое явление — саморазрушение астероида

Астероид Голт был открыт в 1988 году планетологами Юджином и Кэролин Шумейкер. Название было дано в честь геолога Дональда Голта, который внес огромный вклад в изучение кратеров на Марсе, Луне и других космических объектах. Ширина астероида составляет примерно 4–9 километров, длина самого большого хвоста оценивается в 800 000 километров, а меньшего — в четыре раза меньше. Они были образованы в ходе некого события, произошедшего примерно 28 октября и 30 декабря 2018 года.

Ученые считают, что разрушение произошло из-за воздействия солнечных лучей, в ходе YORP-эффекта. Предположение о столкновении с другим космическим объектом было сразу же отклонено, потому что поблизости объекта нет пылевых облаков,образующихся после сильных ударов. Таким образом, саморазрушение остается самым реалистичным объяснением, причем это явление встречается крайне редко. По подсчетам исследователей, хвосты астероида будут видны еще несколько месяцев, а потом обломки рассеются в космическом пространстве.

Наблюдение двух хвостов стало первым признаком нестабильности астероида. Изучение этого явления позволит астрономам тщательнее изучить структуру астероидов, что впоследствии позволит по-новому взглянуть на историю формирования планет в ранние эпохи Солнечной системы.

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